Observing time estimates must take into account:

- receiver tunings,
- pointing, focus, eventually necessary receiver alignment, continuum and
line calibrations,
- telescope motions when changing sources as well as dead times
due to telescope motion and/or data writing between ON and
OFF subscans,
- integration time on source and comparison field(s).
The total integration time should be derived using the standard formula:
where and are the telescope forward and main beam efficiencies, is the system temperature above the atmosphere (in the antenna temperature scale),

**B**the channel noise bandwidth, and**t**the total (ON + OFF) integration time. should be estimated for an `average' winter humidity for 3mm, 2mm and 1.3mm observations (4 mm of precipitable water, or at 230 GHz) and for `good' winter conditions (1.5 mm of water, or at 345 GHz) for 0.8 mm observations.*We ask you to specify in your proposal the parameter values ( total integration time, overheads and dead times) adopted in your calculation of the needed telescope time.*

A technical report explaining how to estimate the telescope time
needed to reach a given sensitivity level in various modes of
observation was published in the January 1995 issue of the IRAM
Newsletter [9]
.
* You are asked to follow the
guidelines given in this report (or to justify particular requirements) in
your proposal*.

Fri Jul 7 18:58:08 METDST 1995